A Treaty Is A Binding Agreement Between
In international law and international relations, a protocol is usually an international treaty or agreement that complements an earlier treaty or international agreement. A protocol may amend the previous contract or add additional provisions. The parties to the previous agreement are not obliged to adopt the protocol. This is sometimes clearer by referring to it as an „optional protocol“, especially when many parties to the first agreement do not support the protocol. 19 There are groups of agreements concluded by subjects of international law but covered by national law, such as the accession to property of a State. Another group is that of agreements between States and a foreign natural or legal person governed by private law (treaties between States and foreign private rights), such as.B. Concession contracts whose character is not entirely clear. One of the recitals is that such an agreement may be a treaty governed by international law, if the parties so envisage, and that the contrary view asserts that the sine qua non of an international treaty is the existence of at least two parties who are subjects of international law. In the case of an Anglo-Iranian oil company from 1952, the ICJ maintained that a concession contract between the UK and the Iranian oil company was a private contract (at 112). The signing of a treaty implies that the signing of a treaty implies recognition, that the other party is a sovereign State and that the envisaged agreement is applicable under international law. Therefore, nations can be very cautious when it comes to qualifying an agreement as a treaty. For example, in the United States, agreements between the United States are pacts and agreements between states and the federal government or between government authorities are declarations of intent. 16 A contract can be described in a variety of ways, as ilc has done.
Terms such as „Convention“, „Protocol“, „Charter“, „Pact“, „Agreement“, „Concordat“ or „Joint Communiqué“ may be used. 72 The VCLT distinguishes between the termination and termination of a contract without giving a definition of the terms in Article 2(1) or specifying the justification for that distinction. Both refer to the unilateral act of a State that wishes to terminate a contract in relation to itself. However, while the denunciation relates to both bilateral and multilateral treaties, the withdrawal relates only to multilateral treaties. . . .