S Sudan Peace Agreement
The civil war in South Sudan (December 15, 2013 to February 22, 2020) was a conflict in South Sudan between government forces and opposition forces. In December 2013, President Kiir accused his former deputy, Riek Machar, and 10 others of attempted coup.   Machar denied attempting to launch a coup and fled to lead the SPLM – in opposition (SPLM-IO).  Fighting broke out between the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and spLM-IO, which sparked the civil war. Ugandan troops have been deployed to fight alongside the South Sudanese government.  The United Nations has peacekeeping forces in the country as part of the United Nations mission in South Sudan (UNAMAS).  Implementation of the peace agreement on the ground will face many other challenges, given the fragility of a civil-military transitional government, mistrust and competition between signatory movements and certain political parties, as well as growing insecurity in many parts of the country, caused by armed militias, violence between tribes , the proliferation of weapons and sabotage by elements of the former regime. There will probably also be opposition from groups such as illegal settlers, who see their interests threatened. Two Indian UN peacekeeping forces were killed on December 18, when their base was stormed by rebels, and three U.S. Osprey army planes were bombed, killing four U.S. soldiers.  On 21 January 2014, Ankunda reported that nine Ugandan soldiers had been killed a week earlier in a rebel ambush in Gemeza and that 12 others had been killed since 23 December.
 The United Nations announced that thousands of people had sought refuge in UN ties.  Two Indian peacekeepers were killed to protect 36 civilians in Akobo, Jonglei, while being attacked by about 2,000 armed youths from Nuer.  The assailants apparently intended to kill civilians under the protection of the UN base in a step condemned by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.  On the 5th anniversary of the outbreak of war in December 2018, British journalist Peter Martell described South Sudan as a nation „in ruins,“ with 4.5 million people forced from their homes in the past five years, with more than half fleeing to refugee camps in Sudan or Uganda.  In an interview with Martell in April 2018, Kiir accused the exodus of his own people on „social networks“ and denied reports of atrocities and said it was a „conspiracy against the government“.  Kiir declared that he would not resign as part of a peace agreement and said, „What is the initiative to bring peace if it is a peace that I will bring, and then I will step aside?“  Kiir also thanked the international community for its „support and encouragement“ in mediating the agreement and stressed that „our work will not be done and we will not relax until we achieve our aspirations for a peaceful region.“ He warned the outside world that Sudan „needs its help and help.“ A peace agreement was signed in September.