Agreement At The Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimean Conference and codenamed Argonaut, took place from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II to discuss the post-war organization of Germany and Europe. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Prime Minister Joseph Stalin. The conference took place near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, in the Livadia, Yusupov and Vorontsov palaces. Yalta was the second of three major war conferences among the Big Three. It was preceded by the Tehran Conference in November 1943, followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, preceded by a conference in Moscow in October 1944, in which President Roosevelt did not participate, during which Churchill and Stalin had spoken about European Western and Soviet spheres of influence.  It was agreed that the five nations with permanent seats on the Security Council should consult on the issue of territorial guardianship before the United Nations Conference. The Conference agreed that the issue of major war criminals should be investigated by the three foreign ministers in order to report, when the time comes, after the conference closes. But as his troops occupied much of Germany and Eastern Europe, Stalin succeeded in effectively ratifying the concessions he had made to Yalta and putting pressure on his advance on Truman and Churchill (replaced by Prime Minister Clement Atlee in the middle of the conference). In March 1946, barely a year after the Yalta Conference, Churchill delivered his famous speech in which he declared that an „iron curtain“ had fallen on Eastern Europe, marking the definitive end of cooperation between the Soviet Union and its Western allies and the beginning of the Cold War.
Allied leaders came to Yalta because they knew that an Allies` victory in Europe was almost inevitable, but they were less convinced that the Pacific War was coming to an end. Recognizing that a victory over Japan might require a long-term struggle, the United States and Britain saw a great strategic advantage for Soviet participation in peaceful theatre. At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would go to war with Japan, and all three agreed that the Soviets should have a sphere of influence in Manchuria in exchange for a potentially decisive Soviet participation in the Pacific theatre after Japan`s surrender. These include the southern part of Sachalin, a lease in Port Arthur (now Thehukou), part of the manchury and Kuril Islands. This agreement was the main concrete achievement of the Yalta conference. Each of the three heads of state and government had their own agenda for post-war Germany and liberated Europe. Roosevelt wanted Soviet support in the American Pacific War against Japan, particularly for the planned invasion of Japan (Operation August Storm) and Soviet participation in the United Nations; Churchill insisted on free elections and democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe (particularly Poland); Stalin called for a Soviet sphere of political influence in Central and Eastern Europe as an essential aspect of the USSR`s national security strategy. Stalin`s position at the conference was one he believed to be so strong that he could dictate conditions. According to U.S. delegation member and future Secretary of State James F.
Byrnes, „it was not a question of what we would leave to the Russians, but what we could do to the Russians“  Washington, March 24 – The text of the agreements reached at the Crimean conference between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Generalissimo Stalin , as it was made public today, states that „the provisional government, which is currently operating in Poland, should be reorganized on a broader democratic basis, including Polish and Polish democratic leaders abroad.“  Yalta`s language has recognized the supremacy of the pro-